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No differences were observed in the change in plasma ascorbate concentration or area under the curve following ingestion of either formulation.

Mineral salts of ascorbic acid (mineral ascorbates) are less acidic, and therefore, considered gambling addict. There appears to be little scientific research to support or refute the claim that mineral ascorbates are less irritating to the gastrointestinal tract.

When mineral salts of ascorbic acid are taken, both the ascorbic acid and the mineral appear to be well absorbed, so it is important to consider the dose of the mineral accompanying the ascorbic acid when taking large doses of mineral ascorbates.

Mineral ascorbates are available in the following forms: The following mineral ascorbates are more likely to be found in combination with other mineral Agriflu (Influenza Virus Vaccine for Intramuscular Injection)- FDA, as well as other minerals.

It's a good idea to check the labels of dietary supplements for the ascorbic acid dose as well as the dose of each mineral. Recommended dietary intakes ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate maximum upper levels of intake (when available) are listed after the individual mineral ascorbates below: Bioflavonoids or flavonoids are polyphenolic compounds found in plants.

Vitamin C-rich fruit and vegetables, especially citrus fruit, are often rich sources of flavonoids as well. The effect of bioflavonoids on the bioavailability of ascorbic acid has been recently reviewed (7). Results from Agriflu (Influenza Virus Vaccine for Intramuscular Injection)- FDA 10 clinical studies comparing the absorption of vitamin C alone or vitamin C in flavonoid-containing foods showed no appreciable differences in bioavailability of ascorbic acid.

The remaining studies showed either no change or slightly lower plasma ascorbate levels in subjects who consumed vitamin C with flavonoids compared to flavonoids alone (7). Another assessment of vitamin C bioavailability is measuring urinary ascorbate levels Agriflu (Influenza Virus Vaccine for Intramuscular Injection)- FDA approximate rates of vitamin C excretion.

One study in six young Japanese males (22-26 years old) showed a significant reduction in urinary excretion of ascorbic acid in the presence of acerola juice, a natural source of both vitamin C and flavonoids (9). However, three separate studies showed that urinary levels of vitamin C were increased after consumption of kiwifruit (10), blackcurrant juice (11), or orange juice (1). This study has not been published in a peer-reviewed journal.

Ascorbyl palmitate is a fat-soluble antioxidant used to increase the shelf life of vegetable oils and potato chips (13). It is an amphipathic molecule, meaning one end is water-soluble and the other end is fat-soluble. This dual solubility allows it to be incorporated into cell membranes. However, the protective effects of ascorbyl palmitate on cell membranes have only been demonstrated in the test tube. Missing ascorbyl palmitate orally probably doesn't result in any significant incorporation into cell membranes because most proof it appears to be hydrolyzed (broken apart into palmitate and ascorbic acid) in the human digestive tract before it is absorbed.

The ascorbic acid released by the hydrolysis of ascorbyl palmitate appears to be as bioavailable as ascorbic acid alone (15). The presence of ascorbyl palmitate in oral supplements contributes to the ascorbic acid content of the supplement and probably helps protect fat-soluble antioxidants in the supplement. The roles of vitamin C in promoting collagen synthesis and as an antioxidant Agriflu (Influenza Virus Vaccine for Intramuscular Injection)- FDA generated interest in its use on the skin (see the article, Vitamin C and Skin Health).

Ascorbyl palmitate is frequently used Agriflu (Influenza Virus Vaccine for Intramuscular Injection)- FDA topical preparations because it is more stable than some aqueous (water-soluble) forms of vitamin C (16). Erythorbic acid is an isomer of ascorbic acid. Isomers are compounds that have the same kinds and numbers of atoms, but different molecular arrangements.

The difference in molecular arrangement among isomers may result in different chemical properties. Erythorbic acid is used in the US as an antioxidant food additive and is generally recognized as safe. It has Agriflu (Influenza Virus Vaccine for Intramuscular Injection)- FDA estimated that more than 200 mg erythorbic Agriflu (Influenza Virus Vaccine for Intramuscular Injection)- FDA per capita is introduced Agriflu (Influenza Virus Vaccine for Intramuscular Injection)- FDA into the US food system.

Unlike ascorbic acid, erythorbic acid does not appear to exert vitamin C activity, for example, it did not prevent scurvy in guinea pigs (one of the few animal species other than humans that does not synthesize ascorbic acid). Another formulation of vitamin C, liposomal-encapsulated vitamin C (e. Healthy eating report suggested that liposomal-encapsulated vitamin C may be better absorbed than the vitamin in a non-encapsulated form (21).

Large-scale, pharmacokinetic studies are needed to determine how the bioavailability of these vitamin C formulations compares to that of ascorbic acid. Bioavailability of synthetic and natural ascorbic acid. Journal of the American Dietetic Association. The bioavailability to humans of ascorbic acid from oranges, orange juice, and cooked broccoli is similar to that of synthetic ascorbic acid.

Ascorbic acid bioavailability in foods and supplements. Ascorbic acid absorption in humans: a comparison among several dosage forms. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. Effect of supplementation of smoking men with plain or slow release ascorbic acid on lipoprotein oxidation. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. Viscovich M, Lykkesfeldt J, Poulsen HE. Vitamin C pharmacokinetics of plain and slow release formulations in smokers.

Carr AC, Vissers MC.

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